Modelling a clock tree in QEMU

What are clocks?

Clocks are QOM objects developed for the purpose of modelling the distribution of clocks in QEMU.

They allow us to model the clock distribution of a platform and detect configuration errors in the clock tree such as badly configured PLL, clock source selection or disabled clock.

The object is Clock and its QOM name is clock (in C code, the macro TYPE_CLOCK).

Clocks are typically used with devices where they are used to model inputs and outputs. They are created in a similar way to GPIOs. Inputs and outputs of different devices can be connected together.

In these cases a Clock object is a child of a Device object, but this is not a requirement. Clocks can be independent of devices. For example it is possible to create a clock outside of any device to model the main clock source of a machine.

Here is an example of clocks:

+---------+      +----------------------+   +--------------+
| Clock 1 |      |       Device B       |   |   Device C   |
|         |      | +-------+  +-------+ |   | +-------+    |
|         |>>-+-->>|Clock 2|  |Clock 3|>>--->>|Clock 6|    |
+---------+   |  | | (in)  |  | (out) | |   | | (in)  |    |
              |  | +-------+  +-------+ |   | +-------+    |
              |  |            +-------+ |   +--------------+
              |  |            |Clock 4|>>
              |  |            | (out) | |   +--------------+
              |  |            +-------+ |   |   Device D   |
              |  |            +-------+ |   | +-------+    |
              |  |            |Clock 5|>>--->>|Clock 7|    |
              |  |            | (out) | |   | | (in)  |    |
              |  |            +-------+ |   | +-------+    |
              |  +----------------------+   |              |
              |                             | +-------+    |
              +----------------------------->>|Clock 8|    |
                                            | | (in)  |    |
                                            | +-------+    |

Clocks are defined in the include/hw/clock.h header and device related functions are defined in the include/hw/qdev-clock.h header.

The clock state

The state of a clock is its period; it is stored as an integer representing it in units of 2 -32 ns. The special value of 0 is used to represent the clock being inactive or gated. The clocks do not model the signal itself (pin toggling) or other properties such as the duty cycle.

All clocks contain this state: outputs as well as inputs. This allows the current period of a clock to be fetched at any time. When a clock is updated, the value is immediately propagated to all connected clocks in the tree.

To ease interaction with clocks, helpers with a unit suffix are defined for every clock state setter or getter. The suffixes are:

  • _ns for handling periods in nanoseconds

  • _hz for handling frequencies in hertz

The 0 period value is converted to 0 in hertz and vice versa. 0 always means that the clock is disabled.

Adding a new clock

Adding clocks to a device must be done during the init method of the Device instance.

To add an input clock to a device, the function qdev_init_clock_in() must be used. It takes the name, a callback, an opaque parameter for the callback and a mask of events when the callback should be called (this will be explained in a following section). Output is simpler; only the name is required. Typically:

qdev_init_clock_in(DEVICE(dev), "clk_in", clk_in_callback, dev, ClockUpdate);
qdev_init_clock_out(DEVICE(dev), "clk_out");

Both functions return the created Clock pointer, which should be saved in the device’s state structure for further use.

These objects will be automatically deleted by the QOM reference mechanism.

Note that it is possible to create a static array describing clock inputs and outputs. The function qdev_init_clocks() must be called with the array as parameter to initialize the clocks: it has the same behaviour as calling the qdev_init_clock_in/out() for each clock in the array. To ease the array construction, some macros are defined in include/hw/qdev-clock.h. As an example, the following creates 2 clocks to a device: one input and one output.

/* device structure containing pointers to the clock objects */
typedef struct MyDeviceState {
    DeviceState parent_obj;
    Clock *clk_in;
    Clock *clk_out;
} MyDeviceState;

 * callback for the input clock (see "Callback on input clock
 * change" section below for more information).
static void clk_in_callback(void *opaque, ClockEvent event);

 * static array describing clocks:
 * + a clock input named "clk_in", whose pointer is stored in
 *   the clk_in field of a MyDeviceState structure with callback
 *   clk_in_callback.
 * + a clock output named "clk_out" whose pointer is stored in
 *   the clk_out field of a MyDeviceState structure.
static const ClockPortInitArray mydev_clocks = {
    QDEV_CLOCK_IN(MyDeviceState, clk_in, clk_in_callback, ClockUpdate),
    QDEV_CLOCK_OUT(MyDeviceState, clk_out),

/* device initialization function */
static void mydev_init(Object *obj)
    /* cast to MyDeviceState */
    MyDeviceState *mydev = MYDEVICE(obj);
    /* create and fill the pointer fields in the MyDeviceState */
    qdev_init_clocks(mydev, mydev_clocks);

An alternative way to create a clock is to simply call object_new(TYPE_CLOCK). In that case the clock will neither be an input nor an output of a device. After the whole QOM hierarchy of the clock has been set clock_setup_canonical_path() should be called.

At creation, the period of the clock is 0: the clock is disabled. You can change it using clock_set_ns() or clock_set_hz().

Note that if you are creating a clock with a fixed period which will never change (for example the main clock source of a board), then you’ll have nothing else to do. This value will be propagated to other clocks when connecting the clocks together and devices will fetch the right value during the first reset.

Clock callbacks

You can give a clock a callback function in several ways:

  • by passing it as an argument to qdev_init_clock_in()

  • as an argument to the QDEV_CLOCK_IN() macro initializing an array to be passed to qdev_init_clocks()

  • by directly calling the clock_set_callback() function

The callback function must be of this type:

typedef void ClockCallback(void *opaque, ClockEvent event);

The opaque argument is the pointer passed to qdev_init_clock_in() or clock_set_callback(); for qdev_init_clocks() it is the dev device pointer.

The event argument specifies why the callback has been called. When you register the callback you specify a mask of ClockEvent values that you are interested in. The callback will only be called for those events.

The events currently supported are:

  • ClockPreUpdate : called when the input clock’s period is about to update. This is useful if the device needs to do some action for which it needs to know the old value of the clock period. During this callback, Clock API functions like clock_get() or clock_ticks_to_ns() will use the old period.

  • ClockUpdate : called after the input clock’s period has changed. During this callback, Clock API functions like clock_ticks_to_ns() will use the new period.

Note that a clock only has one callback: it is not possible to register different functions for different events. You must register a single callback which listens for all of the events you are interested in, and use the event argument to identify which event has happened.

Retrieving clocks from a device

qdev_get_clock_in() and dev_get_clock_out() are available to get the clock inputs or outputs of a device. For example:

Clock *clk = qdev_get_clock_in(DEVICE(mydev), "clk_in");


Clock *clk = qdev_get_clock_out(DEVICE(mydev), "clk_out");

Connecting two clocks together

To connect two clocks together, use the clock_set_source() function. Given two clocks clk1, and clk2, clock_set_source(clk2, clk1); configures clk2 to follow the clk1 period changes. Every time clk1 is updated, clk2 will be updated too.

When connecting clock between devices, prefer using the qdev_connect_clock_in() function to set the source of an input device clock. For example, to connect the input clock clk2 of devB to the output clock clk1 of devA, do:

qdev_connect_clock_in(devB, "clk2", qdev_get_clock_out(devA, "clk1"))

We used qdev_get_clock_out() above, but any clock can drive an input clock, even another input clock. The following diagram shows some examples of connections. Note also that a clock can drive several other clocks.

+------------+  +--------------------------------------------------+
|  Device A  |  |                   Device B                       |
|            |  |               +---------------------+            |
|            |  |               |       Device C      |            |
|  +-------+ |  | +-------+     | +-------+ +-------+ |  +-------+ |
|  |Clock 1|>>-->>|Clock 2|>>+-->>|Clock 3| |Clock 5|>>>>|Clock 6|>>
|  | (out) | |  | | (in)  |  |  | | (in)  | | (out) | |  | (out) | |
|  +-------+ |  | +-------+  |  | +-------+ +-------+ |  +-------+ |
+------------+  |            |  +---------------------+            |
                |            |                                     |
                |            |  +--------------+                   |
                |            |  |   Device D   |                   |
                |            |  | +-------+    |                   |
                |            +-->>|Clock 4|    |                   |
                |               | | (in)  |    |                   |
                |               | +-------+    |                   |
                |               +--------------+                   |

In the above example, when Clock 1 is updated by Device A, three clocks get the new clock period value: Clock 2, Clock 3 and Clock 4.

It is not possible to disconnect a clock or to change the clock connection after it is connected.

Clock multiplier and divider settings

By default, when clocks are connected together, the child clocks run with the same period as their source (parent) clock. The Clock API supports a built-in period multiplier/divider mechanism so you can configure a clock to make its children run at a different period from its own. If you call the clock_set_mul_div() function you can specify the clock’s multiplier and divider values. The children of that clock will all run with a period of parent_period * multiplier / divider. For instance, if the clock has a frequency of 8MHz and you set its multiplier to 2 and its divider to 3, the child clocks will run at 12MHz.

You can change the multiplier and divider of a clock at runtime, so you can use this to model clock controller devices which have guest-programmable frequency multipliers or dividers.

Similarly to clock_set(), clock_set_mul_div() returns true if the clock state was modified; that is, if the multiplier or the diviser or both were changed by the call.

Note that clock_set_mul_div() does not automatically call clock_propagate(). If you make a runtime change to the multiplier or divider you must call clock_propagate() yourself.

Unconnected input clocks

A newly created input clock is disabled (period of 0). This means the clock will be considered as disabled until the period is updated. If the clock remains unconnected it will always keep its initial value of 0. If this is not the desired behaviour, clock_set(), clock_set_ns() or clock_set_hz() should be called on the Clock object during device instance init. For example:

clk = qdev_init_clock_in(DEVICE(dev), "clk-in", clk_in_callback,
                         dev, ClockUpdate);
/* set initial value to 10ns / 100MHz */
clock_set_ns(clk, 10);

To enforce that the clock is wired up by the board code, you can call clock_has_source() in your device’s realize method:

if (!clock_has_source(s->clk)) {
    error_setg(errp, "MyDevice: clk input must be connected");

Note that this only checks that the clock has been wired up; it is still possible that the output clock connected to it is disabled or has not yet been configured, in which case the period will be zero. You should use the clock callback to find out when the clock period changes.

Fetching clock frequency/period

To get the current state of a clock, use the functions clock_get() or clock_get_hz().

clock_get() returns the period of the clock in its fully precise internal representation, as an unsigned 64-bit integer in units of 2^-32 nanoseconds. (For many purposes clock_ticks_to_ns() will be more convenient; see the section below on expiry deadlines.)

clock_get_hz() returns the frequency of the clock, rounded to the next lowest integer. This implies some inaccuracy due to the rounding, so be cautious about using it in calculations.

It is also possible to register a callback on clock frequency changes. Here is an example, which assumes that clock_callback has been specified as the callback for the ClockUpdate event:

void clock_callback(void *opaque, ClockEvent event) {
    MyDeviceState *s = (MyDeviceState *) opaque;
     * 'opaque' is the argument passed to qdev_init_clock_in();
     * usually this will be the device state pointer.

    /* do something with the new period */
    fprintf(stdout, "device new period is %" PRIu64 "* 2^-32 ns\n",

If you are only interested in the frequency for displaying it to humans (for instance in debugging), use clock_display_freq(), which returns a prettified string-representation, e.g. “33.3 MHz”. The caller must free the string with g_free() after use.

Calculating expiry deadlines

A commonly required operation for a clock is to calculate how long it will take for the clock to tick N times; this can then be used to set a timer expiry deadline. Use the function clock_ticks_to_ns(), which takes an unsigned 64-bit count of ticks and returns the length of time in nanoseconds required for the clock to tick that many times.

It is important not to try to calculate expiry deadlines using a shortcut like multiplying a “period of clock in nanoseconds” value by the tick count, because clocks can have periods which are not a whole number of nanoseconds, and the accumulated error in the multiplication can be significant.

For a clock with a very long period and a large number of ticks, the result of this function could in theory be too large to fit in a 64-bit value. To avoid overflow in this case, clock_ticks_to_ns() saturates the result to INT64_MAX (because this is the largest valid input to the QEMUTimer APIs). Since INT64_MAX nanoseconds is almost 300 years, anything with an expiry later than that is in the “will never happen” category. Callers of clock_ticks_to_ns() should therefore generally not special-case the possibility of a saturated result but just allow the timer to be set to that far-future value. (If you are performing further calculations on the returned value rather than simply passing it to a QEMUTimer function like timer_mod_ns() then you should be careful to avoid overflow in those calculations, of course.)

Obtaining tick counts

For calculations where you need to know the number of ticks in a given duration, use clock_ns_to_ticks(). This function handles possible non-whole-number-of-nanoseconds periods and avoids potential rounding errors. It will return ‘0’ if the clock is stopped (i.e. it has period zero). If the inputs imply a tick count that overflows a 64-bit value (a very long duration for a clock with a very short period) the output value is truncated, so effectively the 64-bit output wraps around.

Changing a clock period

A device can change its outputs using the clock_update(), clock_update_ns() or clock_update_hz() function. It will trigger updates on every connected input.

For example, let’s say that we have an output clock clkout and we have a pointer to it in the device state because we did the following in init phase:

dev->clkout = qdev_init_clock_out(DEVICE(dev), "clkout");

Then at any time (apart from the cases listed below), it is possible to change the clock value by doing:

clock_update_hz(dev->clkout, 1000 * 1000 * 1000); /* 1GHz */

Because updating a clock may trigger any side effects through connected clocks and their callbacks, this operation must be done while holding the qemu io lock.

For the same reason, one can update clocks only when it is allowed to have side effects on other objects. In consequence, it is forbidden:

  • during migration,

  • and in the enter phase of reset.

Note that calling clock_update[_ns|_hz]() is equivalent to calling clock_set[_ns|_hz]() (with the same arguments) then clock_propagate() on the clock. Thus, setting the clock value can be separated from triggering the side-effects. This is often required to factorize code to handle reset and migration in devices.

Aliasing clocks

Sometimes, one needs to forward, or inherit, a clock from another device. Typically, when doing device composition, a device might expose a sub-device’s clock without interfering with it. The function qdev_alias_clock() can be used to achieve this behaviour. Note that it is possible to expose the clock under a different name. qdev_alias_clock() works for both input and output clocks.

For example, if device B is a child of device A, device_a_instance_init() may do something like this:

void device_a_instance_init(Object *obj)
    AState *A = DEVICE_A(obj);
    BState *B;
    /* create object B as child of A */
    qdev_alias_clock(B, "clk", A, "b_clk");
     * Now A has a clock "b_clk" which is an alias to
     * the clock "clk" of its child B.

This function does not return any clock object. The new clock has the same direction (input or output) as the original one. This function only adds a link to the existing clock. In the above example, object B remains the only object allowed to use the clock and device A must not try to change the clock period or set a callback to the clock. This diagram describes the example with an input clock:

|        Device A          |
|         +--------------+ |
|         |   Device B   | |
|         | +-------+    | |
>>"b_clk">>>| "clk" |    | |
|  (in)   | |  (in) |    | |
|         | +-------+    | |
|         +--------------+ |


Clock state is not migrated automatically. Every device must handle its clock migration. Alias clocks must not be migrated.

To ensure clock states are restored correctly during migration, there are two solutions.

Clock states can be migrated by adding an entry into the device vmstate description. You should use the VMSTATE_CLOCK macro for this. This is typically used to migrate an input clock state. For example:

MyDeviceState {
    DeviceState parent_obj;
    [...] /* some fields */
    Clock *clk;

VMStateDescription my_device_vmstate = {
    .name = "my_device",
    .fields = (const VMStateField[]) {
        [...], /* other migrated fields */
        VMSTATE_CLOCK(clk, MyDeviceState),

The second solution is to restore the clock state using information already at our disposal. This can be used to restore output clock states using the device state. The functions clock_set[_ns|_hz]() can be used during the post_load() migration callback.

When adding clock support to an existing device, if you care about migration compatibility you will need to be careful, as simply adding a VMSTATE_CLOCK() line will break compatibility. Instead, you can put the VMSTATE_CLOCK() line into a vmstate subsection with a suitable needed function, and use clock_set() in a pre_load() function to set the default value that will be used if the source virtual machine in the migration does not send the clock state.

Care should be taken not to use clock_update[_ns|_hz]() or clock_propagate() during the whole migration procedure because it will trigger side effects to other devices in an unknown state.